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Course Descriptions

CHEM-105-6 – First-Year Seminar

**First-Year Seminar Courses are Not Open to General Enrollment**

Science and the Scientist: How we communicate complex ideas, from comic books to journal articles (Fall 2021; Veronica Berns)

How we communicate complex ideas, from comic books to journal articles: exploring effective scientific communication through graphic novels: Clear and concise communication is highly valued in many STEM fields. Whether conveying the technical details of an experiment for a colleague or translating the impact of a study for the public, scientists need to discuss complex ideas with different audiences. This course analyzes the goals of scientific writing by examining texts that represent different levels of communication, including how to use the visual language of comic books for conveying complex scientific ideas.

What's So Special About Nanomaterials? (Fall 2021; Katherine Gesmundo)

Over the past 20 years, nanotechnology has been a booming area of research in chemistry, biology, physics, engineering, and medicine. Modern techniques have allowed scientists to better study small materials, and the nanotech we read about in science fiction novels can now become real products found in our world. In this seminar, we will discuss what is so special about the size range of 1-100 nm (the nanoscale) and why particles of this size have a such a unique niche in nature and technology. We will explore the properties of these materials and why quantum mechanical effects allow for this scale to be so important. Discussions of medicines, electronics, catalysts, additives, and imaging agents that include nanoparticles will allow us to explore the wide range of current directions of nanotechnology. As we look to future applications, we will debate the implications of these materials on the environment, human health, and safety. Regulatory bodies in the United States and around the globe have discussed the ethical and social impact of nanomaterials, and we will investigate their role is assuring the nanomaterials we use leave a positive impact on the world.

Sustainability Meets Environmental Justice (Winter 2022, Shelby Hatch)

In this course, we will explore how issues of race and class shape our views of these concepts. Northwestern University is currently about halfway through its first five-year strategic sustainability plan. This plan will serve as a starting point for discussing various issues of sustainability such as the built environment, transportation, and resource conservation. We will delve into the chemistry behind sustainable design with a particular eye toward how the 12 Principles of Green Chemistry and Green Engineering are applied.

The Science Behind Oppression (Spring 2022, Stephanie Knezz)

Biased interpretations of scientific results have been used to justify racial and gender oppression for centuries. It was often argued that people of different races and different genders were fundamentally different, and as such their roles in society should differ as well. Today, many people reject the claim that race and gender have substantial effect on a person’s abilities or capacity, but how did we get here? More importantly, how did science help facilitate these claims in the first place?
In this course, we will explore the role of science in historical oppression based on race and gender. We will identify key scientific studies and their subsequent legacy to reveal the precarious nature of scientific interpretation in the hands of biased individuals. We will discuss how power structures can infiltrate scientific integrity and propose safeguards to prevent this kind of infiltration in the future.

CHEM 110-0 – Quantitative Problem Solving in Chemistry

Solution strategies for traditional word problems and their application to basic chemistry quantitative problems: dimensional analysis, chemical equations, stoichiometry, limiting reagents, gas laws, and thermochemistry. 

Students with an AP Chem score of 5 or an IB (HL) Chem score of 7 are not eligible to take this course.

Prerequisite: permission of department via Initial Chemistry Assessment. 

Please contact chemhelp@northwestern.edu regarding permission and/or access to the Initial Chemistry Assessment. 

CHEM 131-0 – General Chemistry 1

Quantum mechanics, electronic structure, periodic properties of the elements, chemical bonding, thermodynamics, intermolecular forces, properties of solids and liquids, special topics in modern chemistry. Must be taken concurrently with the Chem 141-0 laboratory course. 

Prerequisite: Chem 110-0 (C- or better). Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 132-0 – General Chemistry 2

Solutions and colligative properties, chemical equilibrium, aqueous solution equilibria, chemical kinetics, metals in chemistry and biology, oxidation-reduction reactions and electrochemistry, special topics in modern chemistry. Must be taken concurrently with the Chem 142-0 laboratory course. 

Prerequisite: Chem 131-0 and Chem 141-0 (C- or better in both courses). 

Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 141-0 – General Chemistry Laboratory 1

Chemical analysis of real samples using basic laboratory techniques including titration, colorimetric analysis, density measurements, and atomic spectroscopy. Planning, data collection, interpretation, and reporting on experiments. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 131-0 lecture course.

Prerequisite: CHEM 110-0 (C- or better). Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 142-0 – General Chemistry Laboratory 2

Chemistry laboratory techniques applied to materials science and nanotechnology, acid-base chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Planning, data collection, interpretation, and reporting on experiments.  

Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 132-0 lecture course.

Prerequisite: CHEM 131-0 and CHEM 141-0 (C- or better in both courses). 

CHEM 151-0 – Accelerated General Chemistry 1

Quantum mechanics, electronic structure, periodic properties of the elements, chemical bonding, thermodynamics, gas laws, intermolecular forces, properties of solids and liquids, and special topics in modern chemistry. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 161-0 laboratory course. 

Prerequisite: permission of department via Initial Chemistry Assessment. 

Please contact chemhelp@northwestern.edu regarding permission and/or access to the Initial Chemistry Assessment

CHEM 152-0 – Accelerated General Chemistry 2

Solutions and colligative properties, chemical equilibrium, aqueous solution equilibria, chemical kinetics, metals in chemistry and biology, oxidation-reduction reactions and electrochemistry, special topics in modern chemistry. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 162-0 laboratory course. 

Prerequisites: CHEM 151-0 and CHEM 161-0 (C- or better in both courses). Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 161-0 – Accelerated General Chemistry Laboratory 1

Chemical analysis of real samples using basic laboratory techniques including titration, colorimetric analysis, density measurements, and atomic spectroscopy. Planning, data collection, interpretation, and reporting on these experiments. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 151-0 lecture course.

CHEM 162-0 – General Inorganic Chemistry Lab

Chemistry laboratory techniques applied to materials science and nanotechnology, acid-base chemistry, and chemical kinetics. Planning, data collection, interpretation, and reporting on experiments.  Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 152-0 lecture course.

Prerequisites: CHEM 151-0 and CHEM 161-0 (C- or better in both courses). Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 171-0 – Advanced General Chemistry 1

Review of mole problems and stoichiometry; descriptive chemistry, elements, compounds, and inorganic reactions; gas laws; phase equilibria and colligative properties; chemical equilibrium; aqueous equilibria; topics in chemical bonding and molecular structure. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 181-0 laboratory course. 

Prerequisite: Permission of department by placement exam.

CHEM 172-0 – Advanced General Chemistry

Thermodynamics and equilibrium; chemical kinetics and mechanism; electrochemistry; electronic structure of the atom and quantum theory; advanced topics in chemical bonding; coordination compounds; solid-state chemistry; nuclear chemistry. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 182-0 laboratory course. 

Prerequisites: CHEM 171-0 and CHEM 181-0 (C– or better in both courses). Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 181-0 – Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory 1

Laboratory techniques for studying chemical analysis and chemical reactions relevant to environmental or materials research. Planning, data collection, interpretation, and reporting on experiments. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 171-0 lecture course.

CHEM 182-0 – Advanced General Chemistry Laboratory 2

Study of the physical chemistry (acid-base chemistry, kinetics, etc.) behind the operating principles of biosensors. Planning, data collection, interpretation, and reporting on these experiments. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 172-0 lecture course.

Prerequisites: CHEM 171-0 and CHEM 181-0 (C- or better in both courses). Students may not start the sequence in this course. All General Chemistry course sequences start in Fall Quarter.

CHEM 201-0 – Chemistry of Nature and Culture

This class is a chemistry class designed for non-scientists. Students will look at atoms, molecules, and compounds, but not with the rigorous treatment that is found in a typical chemistry course. We will avoid the physics and math that are employed in a typical chemistry class. By reading about and researching various chemistry topics, students will come to appreciate the presence and importance of chemistry in every aspect of day-to-day life.

Students in this course may not have taken General Chemistry or Organic Chemistry at Northwestern unless by department permission (please contact chemhelp@northwestern.edu to request permission).

CHEM 212-1 – Organic Chemistry

Orbitals, structure of molecules, acid-base Chemistry, introduction to spectroscopic techniques for structure elucidation, the chemistry of the carbonyl group, stereochemistry, and conformational analysis. Designed to be taken by chemistry majors, prospective chemistry majors, and ISP students. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 232-1.

Prerequisites: CHEM 172-0 and CHEM 182-0 *or* CHEM 152-0 and CHEM 162-0 *or* CHEM 132-0 and CHEM 142-0 (C– or better in all listed courses) *or* permission of department by placement exam.

CHEM 212-2 – Organic Chemistry

Primarily for chemistry majors and students in ISP. The chemistry of aromatic, carbonyl, and nitrogen compounds; characterization of organic substances by chemical and spectral methods; reaction mechanisms. Must be taken concurrently with the CHEM 232-2 laboratory course. 

Prerequisites: CHEM 212-1 and CHEM 232-1 (C- or better in both courses).

CHEM 212-3 – Organic Chemistry

Pericyclic reactions, functional group participation, rearrangements, fragmentations, radical reactions, synthesis and reactions of carbenes and nitrenes, the synthesis and chemistry of synthetic polymers, and the bioorganic chemistry of carbohydrates, nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, and lipids. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 235-3. 

Prerequisite: CHEM 212-2 and CHEM 232-2 (C- or better in both courses)

CHEM 215-1 – Organic Chemistry I

Foundational concepts in organic chemistry will be introduced. Topics include structure and properties of common functional groups, acidity/basicity, conformational analysis, stereochemistry, and reactivity of organic compounds.  The chemistry of hydrocarbons, alkyl halides, and alcohols, ethers, and carbonyl compounds will be included.

Prerequisite: CHEM 172-0 and CHEM 182-0 *or* CHEM 152-0 and CHEM 162-0 *or* CHEM 132-0 and CHEM 142-0 (C– or better in all listed courses) *or* permission of department by placement exam. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 235-1.

CHEM 215-2 – Organic Chemistry II

Fundamental concepts in organic chemistry will be covered.  The topics will include important functional groups and will include: nomenclature, structure, properties, and multi-step synthesis. Reaction mechanisms for organic transformations will be presented, and synthesis strategies will be covered. The chemistry of pi systems and aromatic ring system, amines, and carboxylic acids and their derivatives, and enol/enolate species will be included.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-1 and CHEM 235-1 (C– or better). Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 235-2.

CHEM 215-3 – Advanced Organic Chemistry

Advanced concepts in modern organic chemistry will be introduced.  The material will focus on recent developments in synthetic organic chemistry, including: concerted/pericyclic reactions, catalysis, green/environmental chemistry, automated synthesis, and combinatorial/screening methods. Additional topics will include an introduction to materials and polymer chemistry.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-2 and CHEM 235-2 (C– or better in both courses). Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 235-3.

CHEM 220-0 – Introductory Instrumental Analysis

An introduction to basic techniques of instrumental analysis such as gas and high performance liquid chromatography, uv/visible, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy, elemental analysis by ICP atomic emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and differential scanning calorimetry. You will learn the theories behind these techniques in class lectures and you will learn to operate these instruments and analyze data from them in the lab.

Prerequisite: CHEM 172-0 and CHEM 182-0 *or* CHEM 152-0 and CHEM 162-0 *or* CHEM 132-0 and CHEM 142-0 *or* equivalent (C- or better in all listed courses).

CHEM 232-1 – Organic Chemistry Lab

For (prospective) chemistry majors and ISP students. Molecular modeling, unknown identification by spectroscopic methods, and experimental techniques of modern chemistry emphasizing reactions of alkanes, alkenes, alkyl halides, alcohols, and carbonyls. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 212-1.

CHEM 232-2 – Organic Chemistry Lab

For ISP students and (prospective or declared) chemistry majors. Techniques of modern organic chemistry including NMR spectroscopy and reactions such as electrophilic aromatic substitution, esterification, Grignard reaction, aldol condensation, Robinson annulation, and Diels-Alder reaction. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 212-2 lecture course.

Prerequisite: CHEM 212-1 and CHEM 232-1 (C- or better in both courses)

CHEM 235-1 – Organic Chemistry Lab I

Standard laboratory techniques in organic chemistry will be covered. Techniques will focus on the isolation and purification of organic compounds as well as the use of spectroscopic methods to determine identity and purity. The results of the technique-based modules will be communicated by completion of short on-line worksheets. One complete organic experiment, including reaction set-up, product isolation, and preparation of samples for characterization will be performed. The results of the complete experiment will be communicated in a full formal lab report.

Prerequisite:  CHEM 172-0 and CHEM 182-0 *or* CHEM 152-0 and CHEM 162-0 *or* CHEM 132-0 and CHEM 142-0 (C– or better in all listed courses) *or* permission of department by placement exam. Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 215-1.

CHEM 235-2 – Organic Chemistry Lab II

Complete laboratory experiments focusing on standard synthetic organic chemistry will be conducted each week.  Students will complete a prelab worksheet including stoichiometric calculations, prediction of reaction outcome, and identification of safety protocols.  During lab sessions, experimental work including chemical measurement, reaction setup/workup, and product purification will be performed. Product characterization using spectroscopic techniques will be required.  Reports from experimental work will be reported in formal lab reports following guidelines from peer-reviewed journals.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-1 and CHEM 235-1 (C- or better).

CHEM 235-3 – Advanced Organic Chemistry Lab

Advanced concepts in modern organic chemistry will be introduced.  The material will focus on recent developments in synthetic organic chemistry, including:  concerted/pericyclic reactions, catalysis, green/environmental chemistry, automated synthesis, and combinatorial/screening methods. Additional topics will include an introduction to materials and polymer chemistry.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-2 and CHEM 235-2 *or* CHEM 212-2 and CHEM 232-2 (C– or better in both courses). Must be taken concurrently with CHEM 215-3 or CHEM 212-3.

CHEM 302-0 – Principles of Inorganic Chemistry

This course covers basic concepts in Inorganic Chemistry. It is designed to introduce students in key subjects which are used over and over again in chemistry and uses inorganic chemistry systems to illustrate the concepts. The course covers the donor-acceptor concept, hard-soft acids-bases, advanced concepts of basicity and acidity and acid-base view of salvation phenomena. The course also delves into introductory solid state chemistry including unit cells and the structure of simple solids, structure types and electronic structure and Band Theory (with the aim of understanding properties). 

A certain fraction of the time is also devoted to descriptive chemistry which utilizes the concepts learned in the first part of the course and the focus is generally on main group chemistry. This includes the chemistry of hydrogen and the chemistry of the elements of Group 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16.

Taught with Chem 402. Registration by Chemistry Department placement or by permission of the instructor only. Prerequisite: CHEM 333-0 or consent of instructor.

CHEM 305-0 – Chemistry of Life Processes

This topics class will cover the physical, inorganic and organic chemistry approaches to understanding biology of the cell. Topics in this overview of chemical biology intracellular signaling and signaling pathways, ligand-receptor interactions, inorganic physiology, post-translational modifications, molecular probe design for biological targets, glycobiology, molecular imaging techniques and translation science. In the second half of the class, students will learn how to prepare, present and evaluate NIH R01 style research proposals.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better); and 1 biochemistry course; or consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 405. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 305, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 306-0 – Environmental Chemistry

In this course, students will gain a solid understanding of the science, economics, and more importantly the environmental impact associated with various technologies, including, but not limited to natural gas, nuclear, wind, etc. Climate change and the potential impact and mitigation will be considered throughout the course.

Prerequisites: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better); MATH 230-2, MATH 250-0; PHYSICS 135-1 and PHYSICS 135-2; or consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 406. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 306, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 307-0 – Materials and Nanochemistry

Introduction to frontier research at the interface of chemistry and materials science.

Prerequisite: CHEM 212-3 or CHEM 215-2.

Taught with CHEM 407. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 307, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 308-0 – Design, Synthesis, and Applications of Nanomaterials

Synthesis, characterization, assembly, and physical properties of controlled dimensionality nanomaterials focusing on metals, semiconductors, oxides, and polymers. Topics will include interfacial phenomena and particle stability, nano-forms of carbon, and applications-driven material design.

Prerequisite: 1 quarter of physical chemistry or consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 408. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 308, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM-309 – Polymer Chemistry

This course will cover the design and synthesis of polymers, including reaction mechanisms, characterization, and structure-property relationships.

Prerequisites for undergraduates: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better) are required; and one of the following courses: CHEM 307/407, CHEM 313/413, CHEM 319/419, CHEM 412, or CHEM 415.

Taught with CHEM 409. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 309, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 313-0 – Advanced Organic Chemistry

Strategies and tactics involved in complex target synthesis. Modern reaction classes as applied to chemical synthesis, coupled to in-depth discussion of the underlying key principles of synthesis design and execution, are covered in the class. Students will gain experience in problem solving, creative thinking, structural analysis and presentation skills. Prerequisites: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better).

Taught with CHEM 413. Undergraduate students should enroll in CHEM 313, unless officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 314-0 – Bioorganic Chemistry

Biosynthetic chemistry as basis for survey of major classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids, nucleotides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Current topics in bioorganic chemistry. Prerequisite: 215-2 or 212-3 (C- or better); and 1 quarter of biology; or consent of instructor.

CHEM 316-0 – Medicinal Chemistry: The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Action

This is a survey course designed to show how organic chemistry plays a major role in the design, development, and action of drugs. Although concepts of biology, biochemistry, pharmacy, physiology, and pharmacology will be discussed, it is principally an organic chemistry course with the emphasis on physical interactions and chemical reactions and their mechanisms as applied to biological systems. We will see how drugs are discovered and developed; how they get to their site of action; what happens when they reach the site of action in their interaction with receptors, enzymes, and DNA; how resistance occurs; how the body gets rid of drugs, and what a medicinal chemist can do to avoid having the body eliminate them before they have produced their desired effect. The approaches discussed are those used in the pharmaceutical industry and elsewhere for the discovery of new drugs.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better); or consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 415. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 316, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 319-0 – Advanced Organic Synthesis - Concepts and Applications

The design of synthetic routes to natural products and other medicinally relevant organic compounds will be covered in detail. Retrosynthetic analysis, substructure keying, and pattern recognition, along with other methods for synthetic planning will be discussed within the context of specific case studies. Classic and modern organic reactions, including asymmetric synthesis and catalysis, will be introduced and their application in synthetic planning examined. Case studies will include the synthesis of terpenes, alkaloids, polyketides, steroids, proteins and pharmaceuticals. The end result should be that students are familiar with the important issues associated with synthesis and gain intimate knowledge of a wide variety of chemical reactions. Ultimately, when presented with a given molecule, students should be able to develop a reasonable synthesis plan based on firm ideas and reliable transformations. Prerequisites: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better).

Taught with CHEM 419. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 319, unless they are completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 333-0 – Inorganic Chemistry

A contemporary course covering the diverse field of inorganic chemistry including all the elements of the periodic table. Topics include current concepts and models of chemical bonding, reactivity, structure, and properties of inorganic compounds.

Prerequisites: 2 units of 200- or 300-level chemistry.

CHEM 342-1 – Thermodynamics

Laws of thermodynamics, thermochemistry, chemical potentials, and solution thermodynamics.

Prerequisites: CHEM 132 and CHEM 142 *or* CHEM 152 and CHEM 162 *or* CHEM 172 and CHEM 182 (C- or better in all listed classes); MATH 230; PHYSICS 135-1/136-1 and PHYSICS 135-2/136-2 (students may take Physics 135-2 concurrently).

CHEM 342-2 – Quantum Mechanics and Spectroscopy

This course is an introduction to quantum mechanics and includes applications in spectroscopy. Topics to be covered include: The wave equation (the transition from classical to quantum mechanics), the Schrodinger equation, particle-in-a-box models, QM operators, the postulates of QM, the harmonic oscillator and rigid rotor, the hydrogen atom, multi-electron atoms, and approximate methods for solving the Schrodinger equation.

Prerequisites: CHEM 342-1; Math 230-1 (230-2 recommended also); Physics 135-1/136-1 and PHYSICS 135-2/136-2.

CHEM 342-3 – Kinetics and Statistical Thermodynamics

This course connects macroscopic properties (342-1) to molecular properties (342-2). The topics include the Boltzmann distribution, partition functions, distribution functions, macroscopic properties, theories for kinetics, and experimental methods.

Prerequisites: CHEM 342-1 and CHEM 342-2 (C- or better).

CHEM 348-0 – Physical Chemistry for ISP

Gas laws and properties; kinetic theory; first, second, and third laws; phase equilibria; mixtures, phase diagrams, statistical thermodynamics, kinetics.

Prerequisites: ISP enrollment; CHEM 172 and CHEM 182; Math 281-1,2,3; or consent of department.

CHEM 350-1 – Advanced Laboratory

Chemistry 350-1,2,3 is a full-year, 3-quarter laboratory course intended to be taken by all students in the junior year of the chemistry major program.

Roughly half of the CHEM 350-1 course deals with the advanced analytical techniques mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. The rest of this course deals with advanced techniques of synthetic organic chemistry, but you will be expected to use mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy, as well as the techniques of IR and UV/visible spectroscopy that you have learned previously, to characterize the compounds that you synthesize.

Prerequisites: CHEM 220; and CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3, and CHEM 235-3 (C- or better); or equivalent.

CHEM 350-2 – Advanced Laboratory 2

Advanced techniques of synthetic inorganic chemistry including synthesis of zeolites, MOFs, and bioinorganic compounds and use of a Schlenk line. In addition, you will learn instrumental analysis techniques relevant to analysis of samples in materials chemistry. These techniques will include X-ray crystallography, solid state NMR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, atomic spectroscopy, and a variety of polymer characterization techniques (MALDI-TOF MS, NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, DSC). Some of these analytical techniques may be used to analyze the inorganic samples you prepare in the course.

Prerequisites: CHEM 333 and CHEM 350-1 (C- or better), or equivalent.

CHEM 350-3 – Advanced Laboratory 3

 The third course in the 350 sequence covers the very important topic of spectroscopy from a physical chemistry point of view. It deals with the use of various spectroscopic techniques (FTIR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, uv/visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) for structure determination of gas and liquid phase molecules and for kinetics measurements. In addition, you will be asked to design and carry out a 4-week research project at the end of the quarter based on some aspect of course material in the entire CHEM 350 sequence.

Prerequisites: CHEM 342-2 or equivalent and CHEM 350-2 (C- or better).

CHEM 393-0 – Green Chemistry

Green chemistry is defined by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. This also encompasses the reduction of energy consumption during the aforementioned processes. Green chemistry can be thought to span the life cycle of a chemical product, including its design, manufacture, use, and ultimate disposal. 

This class will seek to develop a broad view on green chemistry, with focus on exploring the economic, health and regulatory considerations which make it a multi-billion dollar enterprise. An emphasis on practical real-world scenarios (case studies) that provide us guidance in making better socially conscience decisions will be made. The course can be viewed primarily as being concerned with the philosophy of chemistry as dictated by our modern world in the 21st Century.

Prerequisite: CHEM 215-2 or CHEM 212-3 (C- or better).

CHEM 398-0 – Undergraduate Seminar

Advanced work for superior students through supervised reading, research, and discussion. Prerequisite: consent of department.

CHEM 399-0 – Independent Study

Faculty-directed research. Must be taken P/N for first 2 quarters. Prerequisite: consent of department.

CHEM 402-0 – Principles of Inorganic Chemistry

This course covers basic concepts in Inorganic Chemistry. It is designed to introduce students in key subjects which are used over and over again in chemistry and uses inorganic chemistry systems to illustrate the concepts. The course covers the donor-acceptor concept, hard-soft acids-bases, advanced concepts of basicity and acidity and acid-base view of salvation phenomena. The course also delves into introductory solid state chemistry including unit cells and the structure of simple solids, structure types and electronic structure and Band Theory (with the aim of understanding properties). 

A certain fraction of the time is also devoted to descriptive chemistry which utilizes the concepts learned in the first part of the course and the focus is generally on main group chemistry. This includes the chemistry of hydrogen and the chemistry of the elements of Group 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16.

Taught with CHEM 302. Registration by Chemistry Department placement or by permission of the instructor only.

CHEM 405-0 – Chemistry of Life Processes

This topics class will cover the physical, inorganic and organic chemistry approaches to understanding biology of the cell. Topics in this overview of chemical biology intracellular signaling and signaling pathways, ligand-receptor interactions, inorganic physiology, post-translational modifications, molecular probe design for biological targets, glycobiology, molecular imaging techniques and translation science. In the second half of the class, students will learn how to prepare, present and evaluate NIH R01 style research proposals.

Prerequisites: full year of organic chemistry and 1 biochemistry course; or consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 305. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 305, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 406-0 – Environmental Chemistry

In this course, students will gain a solid understanding of the science, economics, and more importantly the environmental impact associated with various technologies, including, but not limited to natural gas, nuclear, wind, etc. Climate change and the potential impact and mitigation will be considered throughout the course.

Prerequisites: full year of organic chemistry; background in multivariable integral calculus and differential equations; at least two quarters of general physics; or consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 306. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 306, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 407-0 – Materials and Nanochemistry

This course introduces first year graduate students and seniors in chemistry to the field of materials and nanotechnology focusing on synthetic methods to create materials and nanostructures with specific functions. Following an introduction that defines "materials" and "nanoscience", the course covers specific synthetic strategies and methodologies. The first topic covered is polymerization chemistry, starting with basic principles followed by the most advanced methods known to synthesize polymers such as living free radical reactions, ring opening methathesis polymerization, recombinant DNA synthesis of polymers, and supramolecular noncovalent polymers. This is followed by topics in selfassembly of materials and nanostructures including liquid crystals, gels, self-assembly of amphiphiles, self-assembling monolayers, layer-by-layer assemblies, and colloidal crystals. The last third of the course covers chemical synthesis of ceramics, and synthesis of nanomaterials such as quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, graphene, and carbon nanotubes. Prerequisites: full year of organic chemistry.

CHEM 408-0 – Design, Synthesis, and Applications of Nanomaterials

Synthesis, characterization, assembly, and physical properties of controlled dimensionality nanomaterials focusing on metals, semiconductors, oxides, and polymers. Topics will include interfacial phenomena and particle stability, nano-forms of carbon, and applications-driven material design.

Taught with CHEM 308. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 308, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM-409 – Polymer Chemistry

This course will cover the design and synthesis of polymers, including reaction mechanisms, characterization, and structure-property relationships.

Prerequisite (for undergraduates only): full year of organic chemistry; and one of the following courses: CHEM 307-0/CHEM 407-0, CHEM 313-0/CHEM 413-0, CHEM 319-0/CHEM 419-0, CHEM 412-0, or CHEM 415-0.

Taught with CHEM 309. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 309, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 410-0 – Physical Organic Chemistry

Modern topics in physical organic chemistry, while emphasizing the relationship between structure and reactivity. Topics to be covered are molecular orbital theory, orbital symmetry and reactivity, stereoelectronic effects, transition state theory, electron transfer, free energy relationships, nucleophilic and electrophilic reactivity, kinetic isotope effects, and basic photochemistry.

CHEM 411-0 – Organic Spectroscopy

Introduction to principles and practice of organic and inorganic synthetic compound characterization by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS). Topics include NMR instrument operation, spectra interpretation, 2-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, MS ionization and detection schemes, gas chromatography MS, liquid chromatography MS and ionization. The lab component of this class focuses on operations of instrumentation, software tools available in the Integrated Molecular Structure Education and Research Center (IMSERC) and tailoring analytical schemes based on individual research projects.

CHEM 412-0 – Organometallic Reaction Mechanisms

Elucidation of organic and organometallic reaction mechanisms: experiment, theory, and selected case studies.

By the end of the course, students should be able to:

-Identify reasonable reaction pathways for organic and organometallic transformations.
-Qualitatively interpret potential energy surfaces.
-Derive rate laws for multistep reactions, including catalytic reactions.
-Have familiarity with the tools of mechanistic analysis, including kinetic analysis, linear free energy relationships, isotopic labeling, Eyring analysis,
competition experiments, crossover experiments, radical clocks, and use of stereochemical information.
-Identify experiments that would allow the differentiation of possible reaction mechanisms.
-Search and read the primary literature.
-Orally summarize and critically analyze journal articles.
-Write about reaction mechanism with clarity and precision.

CHEM 413-0 – Organic Reactions

Strategies and tactics involved in complex target synthesis. Modern reaction classes as applied to chemical synthesis, coupled to in-depth discussion of the underlying key principles of synthesis design and execution, are covered in the class. Students will gain experience in problem solving, creative thinking, structural analysis and writing techniques.

Taught with CHEM 313. Undergraduate students should enroll in CHEM 313, unless officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 415-0 – Medicinal Chemistry: the Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Action

This is a survey course designed to show how organic chemistry plays a major role in the design, development, and action of drugs. Although concepts of biology, biochemistry, pharmacy, physiology, and pharmacology will be discussed, it is principally an organic chemistry course with the emphasis on physical interactions and chemical reactions and their mechanisms as applied to biological systems. We will see how drugs are discovered and developed; how they get to their site of action; what happens when they reach the site of action in their interaction with receptors, enzymes, and DNA; how resistance occurs; how the body gets rid of drugs, and what a medicinal chemist can do to avoid having the body eliminate them before they have produced their desired effect. The approaches discussed are those used in the pharmaceutical industry and elsewhere for the discovery of new drugs.

Prerequisite: CHEM 210-3 and CHEM 230-3 *or* CHEM 212-3 *or* consent of instructor.

Taught with CHEM 316. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 316, unless they are officially completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 415-0 – Organic Nanomaterials

The materials science and chemistry of soft nanomaterials for myriad applications including nanomedicine. Preparative and synthetic approaches to organized, assembled, discrete nanomaterials will be described. Course will include an in depth discussion of advanced characterization techniques and strategies for this class of material. 

The class covers techniques for preparing and characterizing complex nanomaterials mostly generated from polymers. The course will include a brief summary of synthetic approaches to designed, engineered polymers and how to access precision materials at the nanoscale from these polymers. A large portion of the class will include exciting new developments in the characterization of these materials including scattering methods and advanced electron microscopy including liquid phase and cryogenic TEM. 

Prerequisites: CHEM 210-1 or MSE 331

Co-listed with MSE 444 and BMD ENG 444

CHEM 416-0 – Practical Training in Chemical Biology Methods and Experimental Design

By the end of this course you will expected to have obtained a general understanding of many commonly used measurement techniques available to augment research at Northwestern. It features two weeks of classroom-based instruction on experimental design and analysis; supplemented by NIH Rigor And Reproducibility Training Modules. This overview will be followed by a combination of lectures and labs addressing a broad range of analytical techniques and imaging methods. These lessons will then be applied to inquiry-based learning in Northwestern's advanced instrumentation cores. In addition to lecture, students are expected to devise two Mini-Research Projects and will work on one of these with senior staff to apply specific services and protocols utilizing instrumentation available within Research Cores and University Centers. Students will design specific experiments in selected areas of their interest, and learn new sample preparation methods and instrumentation within one of the following areas: mass spectrometry; proteomics, in vivo and molecular imaging, small molecule synthesis and purification; high-throughput screening, x-ray crystallography, and analysis of bioelements. Material generated in the class counts for course credit will be usable in research group settings.

ChEM 419-0 – Advanced Organic Synthesis - Concepts and Applications

The design of synthetic routes to natural products and other medicinally relevant organic compounds will be covered in detail. Retrosynthetic analysis, substructure keying, and pattern recognition, along with other methods for synthetic planning will be discussed within the context of specific case studies. Classic and modern organic reactions, including asymmetric synthesis and catalysis, will be introduced and their application in synthetic planning examined. Case studies will include the synthesis of terpenes, alkaloids, polyketides, steroids, proteins and pharmaceuticals. The end result should be that students are familiar with the important issues associated with synthesis and gain intimate knowledge of a wide variety of chemical reactions. Ultimately, when presented with a given molecule, students should be able to develop a reasonable synthesis plan based on firm ideas and reliable transformations.

Taught with CHEM 319. Undergraduates should enroll in CHEM 319, unless they are completing the BA/MS program.

CHEM 432-0 – X-Ray Crystallography

This class focuses on structure determination by X-Ray Crystallography. The course will include lectures on crystallographic theory applied on single-crystals and powders as well as hands-on experience with instrumentation, structure solution, and refinement software. Students will be asked to provide single-crystal samples from their own research or from their research groups for in-class analysis.

Enrollment by instructor permission only.

CHEM 433-0 – Structural Inorganic Chemistry

Chemical applications of group theory and the determination of inorganic and organic molecular and extended structures by modern physical techniques.

CHEM 434-0 – Inorganic Chemistry

The course will include topics covering the whole of inorganic chemistry from biological inorganic chemistry, coordination chemistry, organometallic chemistry, solid state chemistry, materials chemistry and nanoscience.  Using the three major reference works Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry,  Comprehensive Organometallic Chemistry ,  and Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry,  this large body of work covering the whole of modern inorganic chemistry will be introduced through the writings of teams of leading experts. This course will highlight the commonality and differences between extended and molecular inorganic structures and the many thousands of compounds and materials that chemists have made,  and which we continue to make at a rapidly accelerating rate, from the different elements of the Periodic Table.  

CHEM 435-0 – Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: Chemical Structure and Bonding

This purpose of this course is to present a number of topics that highlight the influence of electronic structure in coordination compounds on determining molecular and solid-state structure, bonding, reactivity, and magnetic behavior. Of particular focus are topics not commonly covered in upper-division undergraduate inorganic courses, especially those relevant to areas of active chemical research. Much of the content and examples will be taken directly from the primary chemistry literature. The first approximately 60% of the course will be comprised of lectures, with the remainder involving short critical literature review student presentations.

CHEM 435-0 – Advanced Inorganic Chemistry

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: Solid State and Materials

CHEM 435/445 – Advanced Inorganic Chemistry: Chemistry of Alternate Energy (co-listed as) Advanced Physical Chemistry: Chemistry of Alternate Energy

The course will cover fundamental aspects of light-to-electrical energy conversion, light-to-chemical energy conversion, molecular hydrogen as a potentially renewable fuel source, carbon dioxide capture and transformation, and related concepts, chiefly from a chemistry and materials perspective. Emphasis will be placed on promising emerging science and technology, including that associated with organic photovoltaics, solid-state dye cells, and photo-catalytic and electro-catalytic materials for water splitting. Depending on interest, other topics such as thermoelectrics, thermal-solar water splitting, biofuels, or redox flow batteries and other electrical energy storage technologies may be discussed. The course will be taught at the beginning-graduate-student/upper-level-undergraduate-student level.

CHEM 442-1 – Quantum Chemistry

This course is intended to establish the foundations of quantum mechanics at the graduate level.

*Topics Covered*

CHEM 442-2 – Quantum Chemistry

This course covers two topics: molecular electronic structure theory and time dependent quantum mechanics. Included are applications to molecular optical properties, to the interaction of radiation and matter, to scattering theory and to time-dependent spectroscopy.

CHEM 443-0 – Kinetics and Spectroscopy

The first part of the course focuses on a practical approach to chemical kinetics and dynamics. It will briefly review basic rate laws and rate laws for complex reactions, temperature dependence of reaction rates as well as their chemical applications. The second part of the course focuses on spectroscopic methods in solving chemical kinetics and dynamics problems, with fundamental concepts on the interaction of light and matter, the core process in various spectroscopic methods. This is an advanced graduate level course on a special topic, which implies that one will study the materials in a research-like atmosphere and will read and critique the literature. The prerequisite of the course are some quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics and fundamental spectroscopy knowledge, and some basic calculus and linear algebra skills. 

CHEM 444-0 – Elementary Statistical Mechanics

This graduate-level course develops a quantitative framework for characterizing equilibrium states of chemical, physical, and biological systems. The emphasis throughout will be on connecting behavior at macroscopic length scales, where most observations take place, and microscopic length scales, where material properties originate. Students should come away with a visceral understanding of: entropy, free energies, the relationships between statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, and phase transitions. The topics are intrinsically technical and rely on some mathematical tools that may be unfamiliar, but effort will be made to keep things as simple as possible (and no simpler). To aid with the intuitive understanding, we will make use of computational techniques for simulating and visualizing these concepts, which will require that students have (or develop) some familiarity with basic computer programming.

CHEM 445-0 – Advanced Physical Chemistry: Modern Spectroscopy

This course focuses on fundamental principles of light-mattering interactions and their applications in advanced experimental spectroscopic methods. In the Spring quarter of 2021, the class will cover time dependent Schrödinger equation, Fermi golden rule, perturbation theory, system-bath interactions, as well as spectroscopic methods (pump-probe, fluorescence upconversion, multidimensional spectroscopy, X-ray absorption/emission and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopies). Application examples will be discussed with emphasis on chemical science

CHEM 448-0 – Computational Chemistry

The aim of this course is to study the application of modern computer technology, in combination with theoretical chemistry methods, to molecular problems. 

CHEM 460-0 – Organic Chemistry Seminar

Current research topics presented by visiting and Northwestern University speakers.

CHEM 461-0 – Physical Chemistry Seminar

Current research topics presented by visiting and Northwestern University speakers.

CHEM 463-0 – Inorganic Chemistry Seminar

Current research topics presented by visiting and Northwestern University speakers.

CHEM 519-0 – Responsible Conduct of Research Training

The goal of Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training is for researchers to perform the most ethical research possible. RCR training is critical to prepare undergraduate students, graduate students, and postdoctoral researchers for ethical challenges that may arise when conducting research. RCR is mandatory for all Department of Chemistry researchers. Undergraduate researchers are required to complete the on-line course only.

CHEM 570-0 – Chemistry Colloquium

No description available.

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